## Meromorphic Functions on the Riemann Sphere (Pt. II)

**Point of Post: **This is a continuation of this post.

Now, I want to use this nice characterization of to make an interesting observation. In particular, take , let’s say

with and . Let us calculate for all . Ok, now by definition if is not a zero or a pole of then , and by almost definition we see that and . Thus, the only point left to check is . Now, we merely check that with the standard chart at we get

where is equal to

Now, it’s evident then that has a singuliarity of order

at and thus has a singularity of order

at . Thus, we see that

Thus, since every meromorphic function on is rational the above calculation proves the following:

**Theorem: ***Let be a meromorphic function on . Then,*

This tells us that, if we count right (i.e. with multiplicity), that meromorphic functions on the Riemann sphere have the same number of zeros and poles. This gives us a definitive proof that Weierstrass’s theorem can’t hold for –we can’t pick meromorphic functions with arbitrary singularities, the number of poles and zeros must be equal. We shall see that this theorem will hold true more generally for any compact Riemann surface.

**References:**

[1] Varolin, Dror. *Riemann Surfaces by Way of Complex Analytic Geometry*. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 2011. Print.

[2] Miranda, Rick. *Algebraic Curves and Riemann Surfaces*. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 1995. Print.

[3] Forster, Otto. *Lectures on Riemann Surfaces*. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1981. Print.

[4] Conway, John B. *Functions of One Complex Variable*. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1978. Print.

[5] Gong, Sheng. *Concise Complex Analysis*. Singapore: World Scientific, 2001. Print

[6] Rudin, Walter. *Real and Complex Analysis.* New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966. Print

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